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Chen, H.* ; Zhang, S. ; Shen, W.* ; Salazar, C.* ; Schneider, A.E. ; Wyatt, L.* ; Rappold, A.G.* ; Diaz-Sanchez, D.* ; Devlin, R.B.* ; Samet, J.M.* ; Tong, H.*

The influence of dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the association between short-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes among healthy adults.

Environ. Health 20:123 (2021)
Verlagsversion Forschungsdaten DOI
Open Access Gold
Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag
BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes. Supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has shown protection against exposure to fine particulate matter. This study aims to investigate whether habitual omega-3 PUFA intake differentially modify the associations between respiratory and cardiovascular responses and short-term exposure to ambient NO2. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants were enrolled into low or high omega-3 groups based on their habitual omega-3 PUFA intake. Each participant was repeatedly assessed for lung function, blood lipids, markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, vascular function, and heart rate variability (HRV) in up to five sessions, each separated by at least 7 days. This study was carried out in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, USA between October 2016 and September 2019. Daily ambient NO2 concentrations were obtained from an area air quality monitoring station on the day of outcome assessment (Lag0), 4 days prior (Lag1-4), as well as 5-day moving average (5dMA). The associations between short-term exposure to NO2 and the measured indices were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models stratified by omega-3 levels and adjusted by covariates including relative humidity and temperature. RESULTS: The average concentration of ambient NO2 during the study periods was 5.3±3.8 ppb which was below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). In the high omega-3 group, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in short-term NO2 concentrations was significantly associated with increased lung function [e.g. 1.2% (95%CI: 0.2%, 2.2%) in FVC at lag1, 2.6% (95%CI: 0.4%, 4.8%) in FEV1 at 5dMA], decreased blood lipids [e.g. -2.6% (95%CI: -4.4%, -0.9%) in total cholesterol at lag2, -3.1% (95%CI: -6.1%, 0.0%) in HDL at 5dMA, and -3.1% (95%CI: -5.5%, -0.7%) in LDL at lag2], improved vascular function [e.g. 8.9% (95%CI: 0.6%, 17.2%) increase in FMD and 43.1% (95%CI: -79.8%, -6.3%) decrease in endothelin-1 at 5dMA], and changed HRV parameters [e.g. -7.2% (95%CI: -13.6%, -0.8%) in HFn and 13.4% (95%CI: 0.2%, 28.3%) in LF/HF ratio at lag3]. In the low omega-3 group, an IQR increase in ambient NO2 was associated with elevations in coagulation markers (von Willebrand Factor, D-dimer) and a decrease in HRV (very-low frequency); however, null associations were observed between short-term NO2 exposure and changes in lung function, blood lipids, and vascular function. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this study imply that dietary omega-3 PUFA consumption may offer respiratory and vascular benefits in response to short-term exposure of healthy adults to NO2 levels below the NAAQS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02921048 ).
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Air Pollution ; Cardiovascular ; Lung Function ; Nitrogen Dioxide ; Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; Air-pollution; Nitric-oxide; No2 Exposures; Fish-oil; Supplementation; Endothelin-1; Mortality; Disease; Older; Lung
e-ISSN 1476-069x
Quellenangaben Band: 20, Heft: 1, Seiten: , Artikelnummer: 123 Supplement: ,
Verlag BioMed Central
Verlagsort Campus, 4 Crinan St, London N1 9xw, England
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed
Förderungen u.s. environmental protection agency