Hepatic iron overload can cause severe organ damage; therefore, an early diagnosis and the identification of potential risk factors is crucial. We aimed to investigate the sex-specific distribution of hepatic iron content (HIC) in a population-based cohort and identify relevant associated factors from a panel of markers. We analyzed N = 353 participants from a cross-sectional sample (KORA FF4) who underwent whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. HIC was assessed by single-voxel spectroscopy with a high-speed T2-corrected multi-echo technique. A large panel of markers, including anthropometric, genetic, and laboratory values, as well as behavioral risk factors were assessed. Relevant factors associated with HIC were identified by variable selection based on LASSO regression with bootstrap resampling. HIC in the study sample (mean age at examination: 56.0 years, 58.4% men) was significantly lower in women (mean ± SD: 39.2 ± 4.1 s-1) than in men (41.8 ± 4.7 s-1, p < 0.001). Relevant factors associated with HIC were HbA1c as well as prediabetes for men and visceral adipose tissue as well as age for women. Hepatic fat, alcohol consumption, and genetic risk score for iron levels were associated with HIC in both sexes. In conclusion, there are sex-specific associations of HIC with markers of body composition, glucose metabolism, and alcohol consumption.