The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of subcortical nuclei responsible for motor and executive function. Central to BG function are striatal cells expressing D1 (D1R) and D2 (D2R) dopamine receptors. D1R and D2R cells are considered functional antagonists that facilitate voluntary movements and inhibit competing motor patterns, respectively. However, whether they maintain a uniform function across the striatum and what influence they exert outside the BG is unclear. Here, we address these questions by combining optogenetic activation of D1R and D2R cells in the mouse ventrolateral caudoputamen with fMRI. Striatal D1R/D2R stimulation evokes distinct activity within the BG-thalamocortical network and differentially engages cerebellar and prefrontal regions. Computational modeling of effective connectivity confirms that changes in D1R/D2R output drive functional relationships between these regions. Our results suggest a complex functional organization of striatal D1R/D2R cells and hint toward an interconnected fronto-BG-cerebellar network modulated by striatal D1R and D2R cells.