Background/objectives: The association between vitamin D and DSPN has been investigated in cross-sectional studies in individuals with diabetes. However, evidence from prospective and population-based studies is still lacking. Also, the potential modifying effect of obesity and glucose tolerance has not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of serum 25(OH)D with DSPN and assessed possible effect modifications. Subjects/methods: The study included individuals aged 62–81 years who participated in the German KORA F4 (2006–2008) and FF4 (2013–2014) studies. DSPN was assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Cross-sectional analyses (n = 1065; 33% of the participants had obesity) assessed the associations of baseline 25(OH)D with prevalent DSPN, while prospective analyses (n = 422) assessed the associations of 25(OH)D with incident DSPN. Results: No association was found between 25(OH)D and prevalent DSPN in the total sample after adjustment for age, sex, season of blood sampling, BMI, metabolic variables, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. However, a decrease by 10 nmol/L in 25(OH)D was associated with prevalent DSPN (RR (95% CI) 1.08 (1.01, 1.16)) in individuals with obesity but not in normal-weight individuals (RR (95% CI) 0.97 (0.92, 1.02), pinteraction = 0.002). No evidence for effect modification by glucose tolerance was found (p > 0.05). In the prospective analysis, 25(OH)D levels in the first and second tertiles were associated with higher risk of DSPN (RR (95% CI) 1.18 (1.02; 1.38) and 1.40 (1.04; 1.90)) compared to the third tertile after adjustment for age, sex, season of blood sampling, and BMI. There was no evidence for effect modification by obesity or glucose tolerance categories. Conclusions: Our study did not show consistent evidence for cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D levels and DSPN in the total study population of older individuals. However, there was evidence for an association between lower serum 25(OH)D levels and higher prevalence of DSPN in individuals with obesity.
FörderungenMünchner Zentrum für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt, Helmholtz Zentrum München Bundesministerium für Gesundheit Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung Ministry of Culture and Science