Autoimmune vasculitis is a group of life-threatening diseases, whose underlying pathogenic mechanisms are incompletely understood, hampering development of targeted therapies. Here, we demonstrate that patients suffering from anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) showed increased levels of cGAMP and enhanced IFN-I signature. To identify disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets, we developed a mouse model for pulmonary AAV that mimics severe disease in patients. Immunogenic DNA accumulated during disease onset, triggering cGAS/STING/IRF3-dependent IFN-I release that promoted endothelial damage, pulmonary hemorrhages, and lung dysfunction. Macrophage subsets played dichotomic roles in disease. While recruited monocyte-derived macrophages were major disease drivers by producing most IFN-β, resident alveolar macrophages contributed to tissue homeostasis by clearing red blood cells and limiting infiltration of IFN-β-producing macrophages. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of STING, IFNAR-I, or its downstream JAK/STAT signaling reduced disease severity and accelerated recovery. Our study unveils the importance of STING/IFN-I axis in promoting pulmonary AAV progression and identifies cellular and molecular targets to ameliorate disease outcomes.