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Häfner, S. ; Baumert, J.J. ; Emeny, R.T. ; Lacruz, M.E. ; Bidlingmaier, M.* ; Reincke, M.* ; Kuenzel, H.* ; Holle, R. ; Rupprecht, R.* ; Ladwig, K.-H. ; MONICA/KORA Study Investigators

To live alone and to be depressed, an alarming combination for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS).

Psychoneuroendocrinology 37, 230-237 (2012)
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INTRODUCTION: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is one of the most important systems involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Its role in stress response has been generally neglected, although the progression of cardiovascular disease is considerably increased in the presence of stress and especially in the presence of depression risk. With the present analysis we aimed to evaluate whether the activity of the RAAS correlates with depressive symptomatology and with chronic stress. Moreover, we aimed to analyse whether stress response is altered in the presence of depressed symptomatology. We chose "living alone" to be our paradigm of chronic stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aldosterone and renin levels were assessed in 1743 (829 men, 914 women) from the population-based KORA study (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg). The relationship between aldosterone, renin levels and the different combinations of living alone and depressive symptomatology was examined in three different multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, creatinine levels, potassium levels, body mass index (BMI) and bio-behavioural factors. Neither "living alone" nor depressive symptomatology alone were associated with an activation of the RAAS, but the combination of living alone and depressive symptomatology yielded a highly significant increase in the aldosterone (p<0.01) and renin level (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that depressive symptomatology is associated with a hyper-responsiveness to chronic stress. Under the condition of chronic stress depressed individuals have an activated RAAS. Activation of the RAAS might explain the known increased risk of negative cardiovascular disease outcomes in this group.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Renin angiotensin-system; Living alone; Depressed; CONVERTING ENZYME GENE; KORA AUGSBURG COHORT; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION; METABOLIC SYNDROME; CARDIOVASCULAR-SYSTEM; CLINICAL-IMPLICATIONS; DIABETES-MELLITUS; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY; SOCIAL-ISOLATION; HEART-DISEASE
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0306-4530
e-ISSN 1873-3360
Zeitschrift Psychoneuroendocrinology
Quellenangaben Band: 37, Heft: 2, Seiten: 230-237 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag Elsevier
Begutachtungsstatus