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Intracellular chromium localization and cell physiological response in the unicellular alga Micrasterias.
Aquat. Toxicol. 109, 59-69 (2012)
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Various contaminants like metals and heavy metals are constantly released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. The heavy metal chromium has a wide industrial use and exists in two stable oxidation states: trivalent and hexavalent. Chromium can cause harm to cell metabolism and development, when it is taken up by plants instead of necessary micronutrients such as for example iron. The uptake of Cr VI into plant cells has been reported to be an active process via carriers of essential anions, while the cation Cr III seems to be taken up inactively. Micrasterias denticulata, an unicellular green alga of the family Desmidiaceae is a well-studied cell biological model organism. Cr III and VI had inhibiting effects on its cell development, while cell division rates were only impaired by Cr VI. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolization, condensed cytoplasm and dark precipitations in the cell wall after 3 weeks of Cr VI treatment. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) were applied to measure intracellular chromium distribution. Chromium was only detected after 3 weeks of 10 μM Cr VI treatment in electron dense precipitations found in bag-like structures along the inner side of the cell walls together with iron and elevated levels of oxygen, pointing toward an accumulation respectively extrusion of chromium in form of an iron-oxygen compound. Atomic emission spectroscopy (EMS) revealed that Micrasterias cells are able to accumulate considerable amounts of chromium and iron. During chromium treatment the Cr:Fe ratio shifted in favor of chromium, which implied that chromium may be taken up instead of iron. Significant and rapid increase of ROS production within the first 5 min of treatment confirms an active Cr VI uptake. SOD and CAT activity after Cr VI treatment did not show a response, while the glutathione pool determined by immuno-TEM decreased significantly in chromium treated cells, showing that glutathione is playing a major role in intracellular ROS and chromium detoxification.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Chromium; Electron energy loss spectroscopy; Glutathione; Iron; Micrasterias denticulata; Ultrastructure; AMARANTHUS-VIRIDIS L; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY; GREEN-ALGA; OXIDATIVE STRESS; SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE; HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM; SUBCELLULAR-LOCALIZATION; ULTRASTRUCTURAL-CHANGES; DEFENSE SYSTEM; MODEL SYSTEM
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0166-445X
Zeitschrift Aquatic Toxicology
Quellenangaben Band: 109, Seiten: 59-69
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed
Institut(e) Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry (BGC)