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Yin, R. ; Messner, B. ; Faus-Kessler, T. ; Hoffmann, T.* ; Schwab, W.* ; Hajirezaei, M.-R.* ; von Saint Paul, V. ; Heller, W. ; Schäffner, A.

Feedback inhibition of the general phenylpropanoid and flavonol biosynthetic pathways upon a compromised flavonol-3-O-glycosylation.

J. Exp. Bot. 63, 2465-2478 (2012)
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Flavonols, phenylalanine-derived secondary metabolites, have protective and regulatory functions in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, they are consecutively glycosylated at their 3-OH and 7-OH groups. UGT78D1 and UGT78D2 are the major flavonol 3-O-glycosyltransferases in Arabidopsis leaves. The ugt78d1 ugt78d2 double mutant, which was strongly compromised in the initial 3-O-glycosylation, showed a severe and specific repression of flavonol biosynthesis, retaining only one-third of the wild-type level. This metabolic phenotype was associated with a repressed transcription of several flavonol biosynthetic genes including the committed step chalcone synthase [(CHS) or TRANSPARENT TESTA 4 (TT4)]. Furthermore, the committed step of the upstream, general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), was down-regulated in its enzyme activity and in the transcription of the flavonol-related PAL1 and PAL2. However, a complete blocking of flavonoid biosynthesis at CHS released PAL inhibition in a tt4 ugt78d1 ugt78d2 line. PAL activity was even enhanced in the flavonol synthase 1 mutant, which compromises the final formation of flavonol aglycones. The dependence of the PAL feedback inhibition on flavonols was confirmed by chemical complementation of tt4 ugt78d1 ugt78d2 using naringenin, a downstream flavonoid intermediate, which restored the PAL repression. Although aglycones were not analytically detectable, this study provides genetic evidence for a novel, flavonol-dependent feedback inhibition of the flavonol biosynthetic pathway and PAL. It was conditioned by the compromised flavonol-3-O-conjugation and a decrease in flavonol content, yet dependent on a residual, flavonol synthase 1 (FLS1)-related capacity to form flavonol aglycones. Thus, this regulation would not react to a reduced metabolic flux into flavonol biosynthesis, but it might prevent the accumulation of non-glycosylated, toxic flavonols.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Feedback inhibition; flavonoids; flavonols; flavonol synthase; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; phenylpropanoids; UDP-carbohydrate-dependent glycosyltransferase; PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE; TRANSCRIPTOME COEXPRESSION ANALYSIS; TRANS-CINNAMIC ACID; ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA; AUXIN TRANSPORT; DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION; FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS; PLANT-GROWTH; FACTOR HY5; ZEA-MAYS
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0022-0957
e-ISSN 1460-2431
Quellenangaben Band: 63, Heft: 7, Seiten: 2465-2478 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag Oxford University Press
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed