Several members of the human kallikrein-related peptidase family, including KLK6, are up-regulated in ovarian cancer. High KLK6 mRNA or protein expression, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoassay, respectively, was previously found to be associated with a shortened overall and progression-free survival (OS and PFS, respectively). In the present study, we aimed at analyzing KLK6 protein expression in ovarian cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry. Using a newly developed mono-specific polyclonal antibody, KLK6 immunoexpression was initially evaluated in normal tissues. We observed strong staining in the brain and moderate staining in the kidney, liver, and ovary, whereas the pancreas and the skeletal muscle were unreactive, which is in line with previously published results. Next, both tumor cell- and stromal cell-associated KLK6 immunoexpression were analyzed in tumor tissue specimens of 118 ovarian cancer patients. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, only stromal cell-associated expression, besides the established clinical parameters FIGO stage and residual tumor mass, was found to be statistically significant for OS and PFS [high vs. low KLK6 expression; hazard ratio (HR), 1.92; p=0.017; HR, 1.80; p=0.042, respectively]. These results indicate that KLK6 expressed by stromal cells may considerably contribute to the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer.