OBJECTIVE: High serum uric acid (UA) levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is largely unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the association between UA and prediabetic states. We examined the possible association between UA levels and known as well as newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a population-based sample of 32-to-81-year-old men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in all 2,740 participants without known diabetes of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 Study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany. Serum UA was analysed by the uricase method. RESULTS: In women after multivariable adjustment the associations between UA and i-IFG (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.15-2.14), IFG/IGT (OR 1.52, 1.07-2.16), NDD (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.17), and known diabetes (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.82) remained significant, but the association with i-IGT (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95-1.36) lost significance. In contrast in men, after multivariable adjustment there was only a significant association between UA levels and i-IFG (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.84), all other associations were non-significant (i-IGT: OR 1.09, IFG/IGT: OR 1.06, NDD: OR 0.91, known diabetes: OR 1.04; all p-values>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Serum UA concentrations were associated with different categories of impaired glucose regulation in individuals from the general population, particularly in women. Further studies investigating the role of UA in the development of derangements in glucose metabolism are needed.