The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is an exception to a 'neurogenesis-unfriendly' environment of the adult brain. New functional neurons generated in this region contribute to learning and mood regulation, and thus represent a unique form of neural plasticity. The rate of hippocampal neurogenesis significantly changes on physiological or pathological influences, such as physical activity, environmental enrichment, stress, and aging. We suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be sensors of environmental changes and fine modulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we examine the role of DNA methylation and methylation of core histones mediated by the Polycomb and Trithorax complexes in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. Given the recent surprising discovery of dynamic and reversible DNA methylation in the hippocampus, we speculate regarding its regulation and its role in adult neurogenesis.